Primary nutritional groups are groups of organisms, divided according to the sources of energy and carbon, needed for living, growth and reproduction. The sources of energy can be light and organic or inorganic compounds; the sources of carbon can be of organic or inorganic origin. [1] The terms aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration and fermentation do not refer to primary nutritional groups, but simply reflect the different use of possible electron acceptors in particular organisms, such as O2 in aerobic respiration, or NO3-, SO42- or fumarate in anaerobic respiration, or various metabolic intermediates in fermentation. Because all ATP-generating steps in fermentation involve modifications of metabolic intermediates instead of the use of an electron transport chain fermentation is often referred to as substrate-level phosphorylation. The electrons from reducing equivalents are needed by both, phototrophs and chemotrophs, to keep running reduction-oxidation reactions that transfer energy. The electron donors are taken up from the environment. Organotrophic organisms are often also heterotrophic, using organic compounds as sources of electrons and carbon at the same time. Similarly, lithotrophic organisms are often also autotrophic, using inorganic sources of electrons and CO2 as inorganic carbon source. Some lithotrophic bacteria can utilize diverse sources of electrons, depending on availability of possible donors. A chemoorganoheterotrophic organism is one that requires organic substrates to get its carbon for growth and development, and that produces its energy from oxido-reduction of an organic compound. This group of organisms may be further subdivided according to what kind of organic substrate and compound they use. Decomposers are examples of Chemoorganoheterotrophs which obtain carbon and electron reactions from dead organic matter. Herbivores and carnivores are examples of organisms that obtain carbon and electron reactions from living organic matter. Chemoorganotrophs are organisms which oxidize the chemical bonds in organic compounds as their energy source. Chemoorganotrophs also attain the carbon molecules that they need for cellular function from these organic compounds. The organic compounds that they oxidize include sugars (i.e. glucose), fats and proteins).[2] All animals are chemoheterotrophs (meaning they oxidize chemical compounds as a source of energy and carbon), as are fungi, protozoa, and some bacteria. The important differentiation amongst this group is that chemoorganotrophs oxidize only organic compounds while chemolithotrophs instead use inorganic compounds as a source of energy